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What are the reasons for low sprouting percentage in nursery bed?

Low sprouting percentage in nursery bed is due to the nursery diseases. The nursery diseases can be controlled effectively by he integration of the following cultural, biological and chemical methods.

1. Cultural methods: [a] Plough the land deeply and expose to the hot sun for about a month. Level the land properly to avoid the water logging. [b] Keep the land free from weeds during establishment of saplings / plants.

2. Biological method: Nursery Guard (a bio-formulation of Trichoderma pseudokoningii developed by CSR&TI, Mysore) can be used for long-term protection and better survivability and growth of saplings / plants. [a] Mix 1 kg of Nursery Guard (NG) with 60 kg of finely powdered, well decomposed farm-yard manure (FYM). Moisten the mixture with water to about 30% moisture and store it for about a week under shade in the form of a heap, covering with old gunny cloth or newspapers. This enhances the colonization and establishment of biocontrol agent (T. pseudokoningii) in the mixture. [b] For nursery raising, broadcast the activated NG + FYM mixture @ 2 kg/m2 over the well prepared nursery beds and thoroughly incorporate it to the soil by light digging or forking. [c] For direct plantation in the main fields, apply the activated NG + FYM mixture in planting pits @ 50g/pit.

3. Chemical method: [a] Prepare 0.1% solution of Dithane M-45 (Mancozeb 75% WP) by mixing 1 gram of Dithane M-45 powder with 1 litre of water. [b] Soak the stem-cuttings in Dithane M-45 solution (0.1%) for half an hour. [c] Plant the soaked cuttings in nursery beds or in planting pits pre-dusted with Nursery Guard, immediately followed by irrigation.